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GS2 Topicwise PYQs

Indian Constitution

Indian Constitution—historical underpinnings, evolution, features, amendments, significant provisions and basic structure.

  • (2021) ‘Constitutional Morality’ is rooted in the Constitution itself and is founded on its essential facets. Explain the doctrine of ‘Constitutional Morality’ with the help of relevant judicial decisions. (10 Marks | 150 Words | Constitutional Morality, Judicial Decisions)
  • (2019) “Parliament’s power to amend the Constitution is a limited power and it cannot be enlarged into absolute power.” In the light of this statement explain whether Parliament under Article 368­ of the Constitution can destroy the Basic Structure of the Constitution by expanding its amending power? (15 Marks | 200 Words | Parliamentary Power, Constitution Amendment, Basic Structure)
  • (2018) Under what circumstances can the Financial Emergency be proclaimed by the President of India? What consequences follow when such a declaration remains in force? (15 Marks | 200 Words | Financial Emergency, Presidential Powers)
  • (2017) Explain the salient features of the constitution (One Hundred and First Amendment) Act, 2016. Do you think it is efficacious enough ‘to remove cascading effect of taxes and provide for common national market for goods and services’? (15 Marks | 200 Words | Constitution Amendment, Taxation)
  • (2017) Examine the scope of Fundamental Rights in the light of the latest judgement of the Supreme Court on Right to Privacy. (15 Marks | 200 Words | Fundamental Rights, Right to Privacy)
  • (2016) To what extent is Article 370 of the Indian Constitution, bearing marginal note “temporary provision with respect to the State of Jammu and Kashmir”, temporary? Discuss the future prospects of this provision in the context of Indian polity. (12.5 Marks | 200 Words | Article 370, Jammu and Kashmir)
  • (2016) Discuss each adjective attached to the word ‘Republic’ in the ‘Preamble’. Are they defendable in the present circumstances? (12.5 Marks | 200 Words | Republic, Preamble)
  • (2016) What was held in the Coelho case? In this context, can you say that judicial review is of key importance amongst the basic features of the Constitution? (12.5 Marks | 200 Words | Coelho Case, Judicial Review)
  • (2016) In the integrity index of Transparency International, India stands very low. Discuss briefly the legal, political, social and cultural factors that have caused the decline of public morality in India. (12.5 Marks | 200 Words | Transparency International, Public Morality)
  • (2015) Discuss the possible factors that inhibit India from enacting for its citizen a uniform civil code as provided for in the Directive Principles of State Policy. (12.5 Marks | 200 Words | Uniform Civil Code, Directive Principles)
  • (2015) Does the right to clean environment entail legal regulation on burning crackers during Diwali? Discuss in the light of Article 21 of Indian Constitution and judgements of the apex in this regard. (12.5 Marks | 200 Words | Right to Clean Environment, Diwali Crackers, Article 21)
  • (2014) What do understand by the concept “freedom of speech and expression”? Does it cover hate speech also? Why do the films in India stand on a slightly different plane from other forms of expression? Discuss. (12.5 Marks | 200 Words | Freedom of Speech, Hate Speech, Film Industry)
  • (2013) Discuss -Section 66A of IT Act, with reference to its alleged violation of Article 19 of the Constitution. (10 Marks | 200 Words | IT Act Section 66A, Article 19)
  • (2013) Recent directives from Ministry of Petroleum and Natural Gas are perceived by the ‘Nagas’ as a threat to override the exceptional status enjoyed by the State. Discuss in light of Article 371A of the Indian Constitution. (10 Marks | 200 Words | Ministry of Petroleum and Natural Gas, Nagas, Article 371A)

Union and State, Federal Structure

Functions and responsibilities of the Union and the States, issues and challenges pertaining to the federal structure, devolution of powers and finances up to local levels and challenges therein.

  • (2021) The jurisdiction of the Central Bureau of Investigation(CBI) regarding lodging an FIR and conducting probe within a particular state is being questioned by various States. However, the power of States to withhold consent to the CBI is not absolute. Explain with special reference to the federal character of India. (15 Marks | 250 Words | Central Bureau of Investigation, Federalism)
  • (2020) How far do you think cooperation, competition and confrontation have shaped the nature of federation in India? Cite some recent examples, to validate your answer. (10 Marks | 150 Words | Federation, Cooperation, Competition, Confrontation)
  • (2020) Indian Constitution exhibits centralising tendencies to maintain unity and integrity of the nation. Elucidate in the perspective of the Epidemic Diseases Act, 1897; The Disaster Management Act, 2005 and recently passed Farm Acts. (15 Marks | 250 Words | Centralisation, Constitution, Legislation)
  • (2020) The strength and sustenance of local institutions in India has shifted from their formative phase of ‘Functions, Functionaries and Funds’ to the contemporary stage of Functionality’. Highlight the critical challenges faced by local institutions in terms of their functionality in recent times. (15 Marks | 250 Words | Local Institutions, Governance)
  • (2019) From the resolution of contentious issues regarding distribution of legislative powers by the courts, ‘Principle of Federal Supremacy’ and ‘Harmonious Construction’ have emerged. Explain. (10 Marks | 150 Words | Legislative Powers, Federal Supremacy, Harmonious Construction)
  • (2018) Assess the importance of the Panchayat system in India as a part of local government. Apart from government grants, what sources the Panchayats can look out for financing developmental projects? (15 Marks | 200 Words | Panchayat, Local Government, Finance)
  • (2017) “The local self-government system in India has not proved to be effective instrument of governance”. Critically examine the statement and give your views to improve the situation. (10 Marks | 150 Words | Local Government, Governance)
  • (2016) Discuss the essentials of the 69th Constitutional Amendment Act and anomalies, if any, that have led to recent reported conflicts between the elected representatives and the institution of the Lieutenant Governor in the administration of Delhi. Do you think that this will give rise to a new trend in the functioning of the Indian federal politics? (12.5 Marks | 200 Words | 69th Constitutional Amendment Act, Delhi Administration, Federal Politics)
  • (2016) Did the Government of India Act, 1935 lay down a federal constitution? Discuss. (12.5 Marks | 200 Words | Government of India Act 1935, Federal Constitution)
  • (2015) The concept of cooperative federalism has been increasingly emphasised in recent years. Highlight the drawbacks in the existing structure and extent to which cooperative federalism would answer the shortcomings. (12.5 Marks | 200 Words | Cooperative Federalism)
  • (2015) In the absence of well – educated and organised local level government system, Panchayats and Samitis have remained mainly political institutions and not effective instrument of governance. Critically Discuss. (12.5 Marks | 200 Words | Panchayats, Samitis, Local Government)
  • (2014) Though the federal principle is dominant in our Constitution and that principle is one of its basic features, but it is equally true that federalism under the Indian Constitution leans in favour of a strong Centre, a feature that militates against the concept of strong federalism. (12.5 Marks | 200 Words | Federal Principle, Constitution, Centralisation)
  • (2014) Starting from inventing the ‘basic structure’ doctrine, the judiciary has played a highly proactive role in ensuring that India develops into a thriving democracy. In light of the statement, evaluate the role played by judicial activism in achieving the ideals of democracy. (12.5 Marks | 200 Words | Judiciary, Basic Structure Doctrine, Democracy)
  • (2013) Many States Governments further bifurcate geographical administrative areas like Districts and Talukas for better governance. In light of the above, can it also be justified that more number of smaller States would bring in effective governance at State level? Discuss. (10 Marks | 200 Words | State Governance, Bifurcation, Districts and Talukas)
  • (2013) Constitutional mechanisms to resolve the inter-state water disputes have failed to address and solve the problems. Is the failure due to structural or process inadequacy or both? Discuss. (10 Marks | 200 Words | Inter-state Water Disputes, Constitution, Structural and Process Inadequacy)

Separation of Power

Separation of powers between various organs dispute redressal mechanisms and institutions.

  • (2020) Judicial Legislation is antithetical to the doctrine of separation of powers as envisaged in the Indian Constitution. In this context justify the filing of large number of public interest petitions praying for issuing guidelines to executive authorities. (15 Marks | 250 Words | Judicial Legislation, Separation of Powers)
  • (2019) Do you think that constitution of India does not accept principle of strict separation of powers rather it is based on the principle of ‘checks and balance’? Explain. (10 Marks | 150 Words | Separation of Powers, Checks and Balances)
  • (2015) Resorting to ordinances has always raised concern on violation of the spirit of separation of power doctrine. While noting the rationales justifying the power to promulgate, analyse whether the decision of the Supreme Court on the issue have further facilitated to resorting to this power. Should the power to promulgate the ordinances be repealed? (12.5 Marks | 200 Words | Ordinances, Separation of Powers, Supreme Court)
  • (2013) ‘The Supreme Court of India keeps a check on arbitrary power of the Parliament in amending the Constitution.’ Discuss critically. (10 Marks | 200 Words | Supreme Court, Parliament, Constitutional Amendments)

Comparison of the Indian constitutional

Comparison of the Indian constitutional scheme with that of other countries.

  • (2021) Analyze the distinguishing features of the notion of Equality in the Constitutions of the USA and India. (15 Marks | 250 Words | Comparative Constitutional Law, Equality)
  • (2020) The judicial systems in India and UK seem to be converging as well as diverging in recent times. Highlight the key points of convergence and divergence between the two nations in terms of their judicial practices. (10 Marks | 150 Words | Comparative Judicial Systems, India-UK Relations)
  • (2019) What can France learn from the Indian Constitution’s approach to secularism? (10 Marks | 150 Words | Comparative Constitutional Law, Secularism)
  • (2018) Indian and USA are two large democracies. Examine the basic tenets on which the two political systems are based. (15 Marks | 200 Words | Comparative Politics, Democracies)

Parliament and State Legislature

Parliament and State legislatures—structure, functioning, conduct of business, powers & privileges and issues arising out of these.

  • (2021) Do Department -related Parliamentary Standing Committees keep the administration on its toes and inspire reverence for parliamentary control? Evaluate the working of such committees with suitable examples. (15 Marks | 250 Words | Parliamentary Committees, Executive Accountability)
  • (2021) Explain the constitutional provisions under which Legislative Councils are established. Review the working and current status of Legislative Councils with suitable illustrations. (15 Marks | 250 Words | Legislative Councils, Constitutional Provisions)
  • (2021) To what extent, in your view, the Parliament is able to ensure accountability of the executive in India? (10 Marks | 150 Words | Parliamentary Accountability, Executive Oversight)
  • (2020) ‘Once a Speaker, Always a Speaker’! Do you think this practice should be adopted to impart objectivity to the office of the Speaker of Lok Sabha? What could be its implications for the robust functioning of parliamentary business in India? (10 Marks | 150 Words | Speaker of Lok Sabha, Parliamentary Practices)
  • (2020) Rajya Sabha has been transformed from a ‘useless stepney tyre to supporting organ in past few decades. Highlight the factors as well as the areas which this transformation could be visible. (15 Marks | 250 Words | Rajya Sabha, Parliamentary Transformation)
  • (2019) Individual Parliamentarian’s role as the national lawmaker is on a decline, which in turn, has adversely impacted the quality of debates and their outcome. Discuss. (15 Marks | 200 Words | Role of Parliamentarians, Legislative Debate)
  • (2018) Why do you think the committees are considered to be useful for parliamentary work? Discuss, in this context, the role of the Estimates Committee. (10 Marks | 150 Words | Parliamentary Committees, Estimates Committee)
  • (2017) Discuss the role of Public Accounts Committee in establishing accountability of the government to the people. (10 Marks | 150 Words | Public Accounts Committee, Government Accountability)
  • (2017) The Indian Constitution has provisions for holding joint session of the two houses of the Parliament. Enumerate the occasions when this would normally happen and also the occasions when it cannot, with reasons thereof. (15 Marks | 200 Words | Constitutional Provisions, Joint Parliamentary Session)
  • (2015) If amendment bill to the Whistle-blowers Protection Act 2011 tabled in the Parliament is passed, there may be no one left to protect. Critically Evaluate. (12.5 Marks | 200 Words | Whistle-blowers Protection Act, Parliamentary Legislation)
  • (2014) The ‘Powers, Privileges and Immunities of Parliament and its Members’ as envisaged in Article 105 of the Constitution leave room for a large number of un-codified and un-enumerated privileges to continue. Assess the reasons for the absence of legal codification of the ‘parliamentary privileges’. How can this problem be addressed? (12.5 Marks | 200 Words | Constitutional Law, Parliamentary Privileges)
  • (2013) The role of individual MPs (Members of Parliament) has diminished over the years and as a result healthy constructive debates on policy issues are not usually witnessed. How far can this be attributed to the anti-defection law which was legislated but with a different intention? (10 Marks | 200 Words | Role of MPs, Anti-defection Law)

Executive and Judiciary, Pressure Groups

Structure, organization and functioning of the Executive and the Judiciary—Ministries and Departments of the Government; pressure groups and formal/informal associations and their role in the Polity.

  • (2021) “Pressure groups play a vital role in influencing public policy making in India.” Explain how the business associations contribute to public policies. (10 Marks | 150 Words | Pressure Groups, Public Policies)
  • (2021) Discuss the desirability of greater representation to women in the higher judiciary to ensure diversity, equity and inclusiveness. (10 Marks | 150 Words | Judiciary, Gender Representation)
  • (2019) What are the methods used by the Farmers organizations to influence the policy- makers in India and how effective are these methods? (10 Marks | 150 Words | Farmers Organizations, Policy Influence)
  • (2019) “The Attorney-General is the chief legal adviser and lawyer of the Government of India.” Discuss. (15 Marks | 200 Words | Attorney-General, Government Legal Advisor)
  • (2018) Whether the Supreme Court Judgement (July 2018) can settle the political tussle between the Lt. Governor and elected government of Delhi? Examine. (15 Marks | 200 Words | Supreme Court, Delhi Governance)
  • (2018) How far do you agree with the view that tribunals curtail the jurisdiction of ordinary courts? In view of the above, discuss the constitutional validity and competency of the tribunals in India. (15 Marks | 200 Words | Tribunals, Court Jurisdiction)
  • (2017) Critically examine the Supreme Court’s judgement on ‘National Judicial Appointments Commission Act, 2014’ with reference to appointment of judges of higher judiciary in India. (10 Marks | 150 Words | Supreme Court, Judicial Appointments)
  • (2017) How do pressure groups influence Indian political process? Do you agree with this view that informal pressure groups have emerged as powerful than formal pressure groups in recent years? (10 Marks | 150 Words | Pressure Groups, Political Process)
  • (2017) ‘Simultaneous election to the Lok Sabha and the State Assemblies will limit the amount of time and money spent in electioneering but it will reduce the government’s accountability to the people’ Discuss. (10 Marks | 150 Words | Elections, Government Accountability)
  • (2016) “The Indian party system is passing through a phase of transition which looks to be full of contradictions and paradoxes.” Discuss. (12.5 Marks | 200 Words | Indian Party System, Political Transition)
  • (2015) Khap panchayats have been in the news for functioning as extra – constitutional authorities, often delivering pronouncements amounting to human right violations. Discuss critically the actions taken by the legislative, executive and judiciary to set the things right in this regard. (12.5 Marks | 200 Words | Khap Panchayats, Human Rights)
  • (2015) What are the major changes brought in the Arbitration and Conciliation Act, 1966 through the recent ordinance promulgated by the President? How far will it improve India’s dispute resolution mechanism? Discuss. (12.5 Marks | 200 Words | Arbitration and Conciliation Act, Dispute Resolution)
  • (2014) Instances of President’s delay in commuting death sentences has come under public debate as denial of justice. Should there be a time specified for the President to accept/reject such petitions? Analyse. (12.5 Marks | 200 Words | President's Powers, Death Sentence)
  • (2014) The size of the cabinet should be as big as governmental work justifies and as big as the Prime Minister can manage as a team. How far is the efficacy of a government then inversely related to the size of the cabinet? Discuss. (12.5 Marks | 200 Words | Cabinet Size, Government Efficacy)
  • (2013) Pressure group politics is sometimes seen as the informal face of politics. With regards to the above, assess the structure and functioning of pressure groups in India. (10 Marks | 200 Words | Pressure Groups, Political Structure)


Salient features of the Representation of People’s Act.

  • (2020) “There is a need for simplification of procedure for disqualification of persons found guilty of corrupt practices under the Representation of Peoples Act”. Comment. (10 Marks | 150 Words | Representation of Peoples Act, Political Corruption)
  • (2019) On what grounds a people’s representative can be disqualified under the Representation of People Act, 1951? Also mention the remedies available to such person against his disqualification. (15 Marks | 200 Words | Representation of People Act, Disqualification of Representatives)
  • (2018) In the light of recent controversy regarding the use of Electronic Voting Machines (EVM), what are the challenges before the Election Commission of India to ensure the trustworthiness of elections in India? (10 Marks | 150 Words | EVM Controversy, Election Trustworthiness)
  • (2017) To enhance the quality of democracy in India the Election Commission of India has proposed electoral reforms in 2016. What are the suggested reforms and how far are they significant to make democracy successful? (15 Marks | 200 Words | Electoral Reforms, Democracy Quality)

Constitutional Bodies

Appointment to various Constitutional posts, powers, functions and responsibilities of various Constitutional Bodies.

  • (2021) Though the Human Rights Commissions have contributed immensely to the protection of human rights in India, yet they have failed to assert themselves against the mighty and powerful. Analyzing their structural and practical limitations, suggest remedial measures. (15 Marks | 250 Words | Human Rights Commissions, Human Rights)
  • (2021) How have the recommendations of the 14th Finance Commission of India enabled the states to improve their fiscal position? (10 Marks | 150 Words | 14th Finance Commission, Fiscal Position of States)
  • (2018) “The Comptroller and Auditor General (CAG) has a very vital role to play.” Explain how this is reflected in the method and terms of his appointment as well as the range of powers he can exercise. (10 Marks | 150 Words | CAG, Audit Powers)
  • (2018) Whether National Commission for Scheduled Castes (NCSC) can enforce the implementation of constitutional reservation for the Scheduled Castes in the religious minority institutions? Examine. (10 Marks | 150 Words | NCSC, Reservation for Scheduled Castes)
  • (2018) How is the Finance Commission of India constituted? What do you know about the terms of reference of the recently constituted Finance Commission? Discuss. (15 Marks | 200 Words | Finance Commission, Terms of Reference)
  • (2016) Exercise of CAG’s powers in relation to the accounts of the Union and the States is derived from Article 149 of the Indian Constitution. Discuss whether audit of the Government’s policy implementation could amount to overstepping its own (CAG) jurisdiction. (12.5 Marks | 200 Words | CAG, Government Policy Audit)
  • (2013) Discuss the recommendations of the 13th Finance Commission which have been a departure from the previous commissions for strengthening the local government finances. (10 Marks | 200 Words | 13th Finance Commission, Local Government Finances)
  • (2013) ‘A national Lokpal, however strong it may be, cannot resolve the problems of immorality in public affairs.’ Discuss. (10 Marks | 200 Words | Lokpal, Public Morality)

Statutory, regulatory and various quasi-judicial bodies.

  • (2020) Which steps are required for constitutionalization of a Commission? Do you think imparting constitutionality to the National Commission for Women would ensure greater gender justice and empowerment in India? Give reasons. (15 Marks | 250 Words | Constitutionalization, National Commission for Women)
  • (2019) “The Central Administration Tribunal which was established for redressal of grievances and complaints by or against central government employees, nowadays is exercising its powers as an independent judicial authority.” Explain. (10 Marks | 150 Words | Central Administration Tribunal, Judicial Authority)
  • (2017) Is the National Commission for Women able to strategize and tackle the problems that women face at both public and private spheres? Give reasons in support of your answer. (15 Marks | 200 Words | National Commission for Women, Women's Issues)
  • (2016) What is quasi-judicial body? Explain with the help of concrete examples. (12.5 Marks | 200 Words | Quasi-Judicial Body)
  • (2015) For achieving the desired objectives, it is necessary to ensure that the regulatory institution remain independent and autonomous. Discuss in the light of experiences in recent past. (12.5 Marks | 200 Words | Regulatory Institutions, Independence and Autonomy)
  • (2014) The setting up of a Rail Tariff Authority to regulate fares will subject the cash strapped Indian Railways to demand subsidy for obligation to operate non-profitable routes and services. Taking into account the experience in the power sector, discuss if the proposed reform is expected to benefit the consumers, the Indian Railways or the private container operators. (12.5 Marks | 200 Words | Rail Tariff Authority, Indian Railways)
  • (2014) National Human Rights Commission (NHRC) in India can be most effective when its tasks are adequately supported by other mechanisms that ensure the accountability of a government. In light of above observation assess the role of NHRC as an effective complement to the judiciary and other institutions in promoting and protecting human rights standards. (12.5 Marks | 200 Words | NHRC, Human Rights, Judiciary)
  • (2013) The product diversification of financial institutions and insurance companies, resulting in overlapping of products and services strengthens the case for the merger of the two regulatory agencies, namely SEBI and IRDA. Justify. (10 Marks | 200 Words | Financial Institutions, SEBI, IRDA)

Government Policies

Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation.

  • (2021) “‘Earn while you learn’ scheme needs to be strengthened to make vocational education and skill training meaningful.” Comment. (10 Marks | 150 Words | Education, Skill Training)
  • (2019) ‘In the context of neo-liberal paradigm of development planning, multi-level planning is expected to make operations cost effective and remove many implementation blockages.’-Discuss. (15 Marks | 200 Words | Development Planning, Neo-liberal Paradigm)
  • (2019) The need for cooperation among various service sector has been an inherent component of development discourse. Partnership bridges bring the gap among the sectors. It also sets in motion a culture of ‘Collaboration’ and ‘team spirit’. In the light of statements above examine India’s Development process. (15 Marks | 200 Words | Development Discourse, Service Sector)
  • (2018) “Policy contradictions among various competing sectors and stakeholders have resulted in inadequate ‘protection and prevention of degradation to environment.” Comment with relevant illustrations. (10 Marks | 150 Words | Environmental Protection, Policy Contradictions)
  • (2017) ‘To ensure effective implementation of policies addressing water, sanitation and hygiene needs, the identification of beneficiary segments is to be synchronized with the anticipated outcomes’ Examine the statement in the context of the WASH scheme. (10 Marks | 150 Words | Water, Sanitation, Hygiene)
  • (2016) Has the Indian governmental system responded adequately to the demands of Liberalization, Privatization and Globalization started in 1991? What can the government do to be responsive to this important change? (12.5 Marks | 200 Words | Liberalization, Privatization, Globalization)
  • () Though 100 percent FDI is already allowed in non-news media like a trade publication and general entertainment channel, the government is mulling over the proposal for increased FDI in news media for quite some time. What difference would an increase in FDI make? Critically evaluate the pros and cons. ( | | FDI, News Media)
  • (2014) Two parallel run schemes of the Government, viz the Aadhar card and NPM, one of voluntary and the other as compulsory, have led to debates at national levels and also litigations. On merits , discuss whether or not both schemes need run concurrently. Analyse the potential of the schemes to achieve development benefits and equitable growth. (12.5 Marks | 200 Words | Aadhar, NPM)
  • (2014) An athlete participates in Olympics for personal triumph and nation’s glory; victors are showered with cash incentives by various agencies, on their return. Discuss the merit of state sponsored talent hunt and its cultivation as against the rationale of a reward mechanism as encouragement. (12.5 Marks | 200 Words | Sports, State Sponsorship)
  • (2013) The concept of Mid-Day Meal (MDM) scheme is almost a century old in India with early beginnings in Madras Presidency in pre-independent India. The scheme has again been given impetus in most states in the last two decades. Critically examine its twin objectives, latest mandates and success. (10 Marks | 200 Words | Mid-Day Meal Scheme, Education)
  • (2013) The Central Government frequently complains on the poor performance of the State Governments in eradicating suffering of the vulnerable sections of the society. Restructuring of Centrally sponsored schemes across the sectors for ameliorating the cause of vulnerable sections of population aims at providing flexibility to the States in better implementation. Critically evaluate. (10 Marks | 200 Words | Centrally Sponsored Schemes, State Performance)
  • (2013) Electronic cash transfer system for the welfare schemes is an ambitious project to minimize corruption, eliminate wastage and facilitate reforms Comment. (10 Marks | 200 Words | Electronic Cash Transfer, Welfare Schemes)
  • (2013) The basis of providing urban amenities in rural areas (PURA) is rooted in establishing connectivity Comment. (10 Marks | 200 Words | Urban Amenities, Rural Areas)


Development processes and the development industry —the role of NGOs, SHGs, various groups and associations, donors, charities, institutional and other stakeholders.

  • (2021) Can the vicious cycle of gender inequality, poverty and malnutrition be broken through microfinancing of women SHGs? Explain with examples. (10 Marks | 150 Words | Gender Inequality, Microfinance)
  • (2020) “Micro-Finance as an anti-poverty vaccine, is aimed at asset creation and income security of the rural poor in India”. Evaluate the role of the Self-Help Groups in achieving the twin objectives along with empowering women in rural India. (15 Marks | 250 Words | Microfinance, Self-Help Groups)
  • (2017) ‘The emergence of Self-Help Groups (SHGs) in contemporary times points to the slow but steady withdrawal of the state from developmental activities’. Examine the role of the SHGs in developmental activities and the measures taken by the Government of India to promote the SHGs. (15 Marks | 200 Words | Self-Help Groups, Developmental Activities)
  • (2015) Examine critically the recent changes in the rule governing foreign funding of NGOs under the Foreign Contribution (Regulation) Act (FCRA), 1976. (12.5 Marks | 200 Words | NGOs, Foreign Funding)
  • (2015) The Self-Help Group (SHG) Bank Linkage Program (SBLP), which is India’s own innovation, has proved to be one of the most effective poverty alleviation and women empowerment programme. Elucidate. (12.5 Marks | 200 Words | Self-Help Groups, Poverty Alleviation)
  • (2015) How can be the role of NGOs be strengthened in India for development works relating to protection of the Environment? Discuss throwing light on the major constraints. (12.5 Marks | 200 Words | NGOs, Environmental Protection)
  • (2014) The penetration of Self-Help Groups (SHGs) in rural areas in promoting participation in development programmes is facing socio-cultural hurdles. Examine. (12.5 Marks | 200 Words | Self-Help Groups, Rural Development)
  • (2013) The legitimacy and accountability of Self-Help Groups (SHGs) and their patrons, the microfinance outfits, need systematic assessment and scrutiny for the sustained success of the concept. Discuss. (10 Marks | 200 Words | Self-Help Groups, Microfinance)

Welfare Schemes

Welfare schemes for vulnerable sections of the population by the Centre and States and the performance of these schemes; mechanisms, laws, institutions and Bodies constituted for the protection and betterment of these vulnerable sections.

  • (2021) “Though women in post-Independent India have excelled in various fields, the social attitude towards women and feminist movement has been patriarchal.” Apart from women education and women empowerment schemes, what interventions can help change this milieu? (15 Marks | 250 Words | Women's Rights, Social Attitudes)
  • (2019) “The reservation of seats for women in the institutions of local self- government has had a limited impact on the patriarchal character of the Indian Political Process.” Comment. (15 Marks | 200 Words | Women's Rights, Political Process)
  • (2019) Performance of welfare schemes that are implemented for vulnerable sections is not so effective due to absence of their awareness and active involvement at all stages of policy process – Discuss. (15 Marks | 200 Words | Welfare Schemes, Policy Process)
  • (2018) Multiplicity of various commissions for the vulnerable sections of the society leads to problems of overlapping jurisdiction and duplication of functions. Is it better to merge all commissions into an umbrella Human Rights Commission? Argue your case. (15 Marks | 200 Words | Human Rights, Government Commissions)
  • (2017) Does the Rights of Persons with Disabilities Act, 2016 ensure effective mechanism for empowerment and inclusion of the intended beneficiaries in the society? Discuss. (10 Marks | 150 Words | Disability Rights, Social Inclusion)
  • (2016) Examine the main provisions of the National Child Policy and throw light on the status of its implementation. (12.5 Marks | 200 Words | Child Rights, Policy Implementation)
  • (2014) Do government’s schemes for up-lifting vulnerable and backward communities by protecting required social resources for them, lead to their exclusion in establishing businesses in urban economies? (12.5 Marks | 200 Words | Social Welfare, Urban Economies)

Issues relating to development and management of Social Sector/Services relating to Health, Education, Human Resources.

  • (2021) “Besides being a moral imperative of Welfare State, primary health structure is a necessary pre-condition for sustainable development.” Analyze. (10 Marks | 150 Words | Welfare State, Sustainable Development)
  • (2020) In order to enhance the prospects of social development, sound and adequate health care policies are needed particularly in the fields of geriatric and maternal health care. Discuss. (10 Marks | 150 Words | Health Care Policies, Social Development)
  • (2020) National Education Policy 2020 is in conformity with the Sustainable Development Goal-4 (2030). It intends to restructure and reorient education system in India. Critically examine the statement. (15 Marks | 250 Words | National Education Policy, Sustainable Development)
  • (2019) Despite Consistent experience of High growth, India still goes with the lowest indicators of human development. Examine the issues that make balanced and inclusive development elusive. (10 Marks | 150 Words | Human Development, Inclusive Development)
  • (2018) Appropriate local community level healthcare intervention is a prerequisite to achieve ‘Health for All’ in India. Explain. (10 Marks | 150 Words | Community Health, Health for All)
  • (2016) Professor Amartya Sen has advocated important reforms in the realms of primary education and primary health care. What are your suggestions to improve their status and performance? (12.5 Marks | 200 Words | Education Reforms, Health Care Reforms)
  • (2016) “Demographic Dividend in India will remain only theoretical unless our manpower becomes more educated, aware, skilled and creative.” What measures have been taken by the government to enhance the capacity of our population to be more productive and employable? (12.5 Marks | 200 Words | Demographic Dividend, Skill Development)
  • (2015) The quality of higher education in India requires major improvement to make it internationally competitive. Do you think that the entry of foreign educational institutions would help improve the quality of technical and higher education in the country. Discuss. (12.5 Marks | 200 Words | Higher Education, Foreign Education Institutions)
  • (2015) Public health system has limitation in providing universal health coverage. Do you think that private sector can help in bridging the gap? What other viable alternatives do you suggest? (12.5 Marks | 200 Words | Public Health, Universal Health Coverage)
  • (2014) Should the premier institutes like IITs/IIMs be allowed to retain premier status, allowed more academic independence in designing courses and also decide mode/criteria of selection of students. Discuss in light of the growing challenges. (12.5 Marks | 200 Words | Higher Education, Institutional Autonomy)
  • (2013) Identify the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) that are related to health. Discuss the success of the actions taken by the Government for achieving the same. (10 Marks | 200 Words | Millennium Development Goals, Health Policy)

Issues relating to poverty and hunger.

  • (2020) “The incidence and intensity of poverty are more important in determining poverty based on income alone”. In this context analyse the latest United Nations Multidimensional Poverty Index Report. (15 Marks | 250 Words | Poverty Measures, UN's Multidimensional Poverty Index)
  • (2019) There is a growing divergence in the relationship between poverty and hunger in India. The shrinking of social expenditure by the government is forcing the poor to spend more on Non-Food essential items squeezing their food – budget.- Elucidate. (10 Marks | 150 Words | Poverty and Hunger, Social Expenditure)
  • (2018) How far do you agree with the view that the focus on lack of availability of food as the main cause of hunger takes the attention away from ineffective human development policies in India? (15 Marks | 200 Words | Hunger and Poverty, Human Development Policies)
  • (2017) ‘Poverty Alleviation Programmes in India remain mere show pieces until and unless they are backed by political will’. Discuss with reference to the performance of the major poverty alleviation programmes in India. (15 Marks | 200 Words | Poverty Alleviation Programmes, Political Will)
  • (2015) Though there have been several different estimates of poverty in India, all indicate reduction in poverty over time. Do you agree. Critically examine with reference to urban and rural poverty indicators. (12.5 Marks | 200 Words | Poverty Estimates, Urban and Rural Poverty)

e-governance, Citizen Charter

Important aspects of governance, transparency and accountability, e-governance- applications, models, successes, limitations, and potential; citizens charters, transparency & accountability and institutional and other measures.

  • (2021) Has digital illiteracy, particularly in rural areas, couple with lack of Information and Communication Technology(ICT) accessibility hindered socio-economic development? Examine with justification. (15 Marks | 250 Words | Digital Literacy, ICT Accessibility)
  • (2020) “Recent amendments to the Right to Information Act will have profound impact on the autonomy and independence of the Information Commission”. Discuss. (10 Marks | 150 Words | Right to Information Act, Information Commission)
  • (2020) “The emergence of Fourth Industrial Revolution (Digital Revolution) has initiated e-Governance as an integral part of government”. Discuss. (10 Marks | 150 Words | Fourth Industrial Revolution, e-Governance)
  • (2019) Implementation of information and Communication Technology (ICT) based Projects / Programmes usually suffers in terms of certain vital factors. Identify these factors, and suggest measures for their effective implementation. (10 Marks | 150 Words | ICT Projects, Effective Implementation)
  • (2018) e-governance in not only about utilization of the power of new technology, but also much about critical importance of the ‘use value’ of information. Explain. (10 Marks | 150 Words | e-Governance, Use Value of Information)
  • (2018) The Citizen’s Charter is an ideal instrument of organisational transparency and accountability, but it has its own limitations. Identify the limitations and suggest measures for greater effectiveness of the Citizen’s Charters. (15 Marks | 200 Words | Citizen’s Charter, Organizational Transparency)
  • (2017) Hunger and Poverty are the biggest challenges for good governance in India still today. Evaluate how far successive governments have progressed in dealing with these humongous problems. Suggest measures for improvement. (10 Marks | 150 Words | Hunger and Poverty, Good Governance)
  • (2016) “In the Indian governance system, the role of non-state actors has been only marginal.” Critically examine this statement. (12.5 Marks | 200 Words | Indian Governance System, Role of Non-State Actors)
  • (2016) “Effectiveness of the government system at various levels and people’s participation in the governance system are inter-dependent/” Discuss their relationship in the context of India. (12.5 Marks | 200 Words | Government System, People’s Participation)
  • (2015) In the light of Satyam Scandal (2009), discuss the changes brought in the corporate governance to ensure transparency and accountability. (12.5 Marks | 200 Words | Corporate Governance, Transparency and Accountability)
  • (2013) Though Citizens’ charters have been formulated by many public service delivery organizations, there is no corresponding improvement in the level of citizens’ satisfaction and quality of services being provided Analyse. (10 Marks | 200 Words | Citizens’ Charters, Public Service Delivery)

Role of civil services in a democracy

  • (2020) “Institutional quality is a crucial driver of economic performance”. In this context in Civil Service for strengthening democracy. (10 Marks | 150 Words | Institutional Quality, Civil Service)
  • (2017) Initially Civil Services in India were designed to achieve the goals of neutrality and effectiveness, which seems to be lacking in the present context. Do you agree with the view that drastic reforms are required in Civil Services. Comment. (15 Marks | 200 Words | Civil Services, Reforms)
  • (2016) “Traditional bureaucratic structure and culture have hampered the process of socio-economic development in India.” Comment. (12.5 Marks | 200 Words | Bureaucratic Structure, Socio-economic Development)
  • (2014) Has the Cadre based Civil Services Organization been the cause of slow change in India? Critically examine. (12.5 Marks | 200 Words | Civil Services Organization, Slow Change)

India and its neighborhood- relations.

  • (2017) China is using its economic relations and positive trade surplus as tools to develop potential military power status in Asia’, In the light of this statement, discuss its impact on India as her neighbour. (10 Marks | 150 Words | China-India Relations, Trade Surplus, Military Power)
  • (2016) “Increasing cross-border terrorist attacks in India and growing interference in the internal affairs of member-states by Pakistan are not conducive for the future of SAARC (South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation).” Explain with suitable examples. (12.5 Marks | 200 Words | Cross-Border Terrorism, India-Pakistan Relations, SAARC)
  • (2015) Project ‘Mausam’ is considered a unique foreign policy initiative of Indian government to improve relationship with its neighbours. Does the project have a strategic dimension? Discuss. (12.5 Marks | 200 Words | Project 'Mausam', India's Foreign Policy)
  • (2015) Terrorist activities and mutual distrust have clouded India – Pakistan relations. To what extent the use of soft power like sports and cultural exchange could help generate goodwill between the two countries. Discuss with suitable examples. (12.5 Marks | 200 Words | India-Pakistan Relations, Terrorism, Soft Power)
  • (2014) With respect to the South China sea, maritime territorial disputes and rising tension affaire the need for safeguarding maritime security to ensure freedom of navigation and ever flight throughout the region. In this context, discuss the bilateral issues between India and China. (12.5 Marks | 200 Words | South China Sea, Maritime Security, India-China Relations)
  • (2013) The protests in Shahbag Square in Dhaka in Bangladesh reveal a fundamental split in society between the nationalists. and Islamic forces. What is its significance for India? (10 Marks | 200 Words | Shahbag Protests, Bangladesh, India-Bangladesh Relations)
  • (2013) In respect of India-Sri Lanka relations, discuss how domestic factors influence foreign policy. (10 Marks | 200 Words | India-Sri Lanka Relations, Domestic Factors, Foreign Policy)

International Groupings

Bilateral, regional and global groupings and agreements involving India and/or affecting India’s interests.

  • (2021) “If the last few decades were of Asia’s growth story, the next few are expected to be of Africa’s.” In the light of this statement, examine India’s influence in Africa in recent years. (10 Marks | 150 Words | International Relations, India-Africa Relations)
  • (2020) Quadrilateral Security Dialogue (Quad)’ is transforming itself into a trade bloc from a military alliance, in present times – Discuss. (15 Marks | 250 Words | International Security, Trade Bloc)
  • (2020) What is the significance of Indo-US defence deals over Indo-Russian defence deals? Discuss with reference to stability in the Indo-Pacific region. (15 Marks | 250 Words | Defense Deals, Indo-Pacific Stability)
  • (2019) ‘The time has come for India and Japan to build a strong contemporary relationship, one involving global and strategic partnership that will have a great significance for Asia and the world as a whole.’ Comment. (10 Marks | 150 Words | International Relations, India-Japan Relations)
  • (2019) “The long-sustained image of India as a leader of the oppressed and marginalised Nations has disappeared on account of its new found role in the emerging global order” Elaborate (15 Marks | 200 Words | India's Global Image, Global Order)
  • (2019) “What introduces friction into the ties between India and the United States is that Washington is still unable to find for India a position in its global strategy, which would satisfy India’s National self- esteem and ambitions” Explain with suitable examples. (15 Marks | 200 Words | India-US Relations, Global Strategy)
  • (2018) “India’s relations with Israel have, of late, acquired a depth and diversity, which cannot be rolled back.” Discuss. (10 Marks | 150 Words | International Relations, India-Israel Relations)
  • (2018) A number of outside powers have entrenched themselves in Central Asia, which is a zone of interest to India. Discuss the implications, in this context, of India’s joining the Ashgabat Agreement, 2018. (10 Marks | 150 Words | Central Asia Politics, Ashgabat Agreement)
  • (2017) The question of India’s Energy Security constitutes the most important part of India’s economic progress. Analyze India’s energy policy cooperation with West Asian Countries. (15 Marks | 200 Words | Energy Security, West Asia Relations)
  • (2016) Evaluate the economic and strategic dimensions of India’s Look East Policy in the context of the post-Cold War international scenario. (12.5 Marks | 200 Words | Look East Policy, Post-Cold War Scenario)
  • (2015) Increasing interest of India in Africa has its pro and cons. Critically Examine. (12.5 Marks | 200 Words | India-Africa Relations, Pros and Cons)
  • (2014) The aim of Information Technology Agreements (ITAs) is to lower all taxes and tariffs on Information technology products by signatories to zero. What impact would such agreements have on India’s interests? (12.5 Marks | 200 Words | Information Technology, Trade Agreements)
  • (2014) Some of the International funding agencies have special terms for economic participation stipulating a substantial component of the aid used for sourcing equipment from the leading countries. Discuss on merits of such terms and it, there exists a strong case not to accept such conditions in the Indian context. (12.5 Marks | 200 Words | International Funding, Economic Participation)
  • (2014) India has recently signed to become founding member of New Development Bank (NDB) and also the Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank (AIIB). How will the role of the two Banks be different? Discuss the strategic significance of these two Banks for India. (12.5 Marks | 200 Words | International Banks, Strategic Significance)
  • (2013) The proposed withdrawal of International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) from Afghanistan in 2014 is fraught with major security implications for the countries of the region. Examine in light of the fact that India is faced with a plethora of challenges and needs to safeguard its own strategic interests. (10 Marks | 200 Words | International Security, India's Strategic Interests)
  • (2013) What do you understand by ‘The String of Pearls’? How does it impact India? Briefly outline the steps taken by India to counter this. (10 Marks | 200 Words | The String of Pearls, India's Countermeasures)
  • (2013) Economic ties between India and Japan while growing in the recent years are still far below their potential. Elucidate the policy constraints which are inhibiting this growth. (10 Marks | 200 Words | India-Japan Relations, Economic Ties)
  • (2013) What is meant by Gujral doctrine? Does it have any relevance today? Discuss. (10 Marks | 200 Words | Gujral Doctrine, Relevance)

India's Interest and Indian Diaspora

Effect of policies and politics of developed and developing countries on India’s interests, Indian diaspora

  • (2021) “The USA is facing an existential threat in the form of a China, that is much more challenging than the erstwhile Soviet Union.” Explain. (10 Marks | 150 Words | US-China Relations, International Politics)
  • (2020) ‘Indian diaspora has a decisive role to play in the politics and economy of America and European Countries’. Comment with examples. (10 Marks | 150 Words | Indian Diaspora, Politics and Economy)
  • (2018) In what ways would the ongoing US-Iran Nuclear Pact Controversy affect the national interest of India? How should India respond to its situation? (15 Marks | 200 Words | US-Iran Relations, National Interest of India)
  • (2017) Indian Diaspora has an important role to play in South-East Asian countries’ economy and society. Appraise the role of Indian Diaspora in South- East Asia in this context. (15 Marks | 200 Words | Indian Diaspora, South-East Asian Economies)
  • (2013) Discuss the political developments in Maldives in the last two years. Should they be of any cause of concern to India? (10 Marks | 200 Words | Maldives Politics, India's Concerns)

International Organizations

Important International institutions, agencies and fora- their structure, mandate.

  • (2020) Critically examine the role of WHO in providing global health security during the Covid-19 pandemic. (10 Marks | 150 Words | WHO, Global Health Security)
  • (2019) ‘Too little cash, too much politics, leaves UNESCO fighting for life.’ Discuss the statement in the light of US’ withdrawal and its accusation of the cultural body as being ‘anti-Israel bias’. (10 Marks | 150 Words | UNESCO, US Withdrawal)
  • (2018) What are the key areas of reform if the WTO has to survive in the present context of ‘Trade War’, especially keeping in mind the interest of India? (15 Marks | 200 Words | WTO, Trade War)
  • (2017) What are the main functions of the United Nations Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC)? Explain different functional commissions attached to it. (10 Marks | 150 Words | UN ECOSOC, Functional Commissions)
  • (2016) “The broader aims and objectives of WTO are to manage and promote international trade in the era of globalization. But the Doha round of negotiations seem doomed due to differences between the developed and the developing countries.” Discuss in the Indian perspective. (12.5 Marks | 200 Words | WTO, Doha Round, International Trade)
  • (2016) What are the aims and objectives of the McBride Commission of the UNESCO? What is India’s position on these? (12.5 Marks | 200 Words | McBride Commission, UNESCO, India's Position)
  • (2015) Discuss the impediments India is facing in its pursuit of a permanent seat in UNSC. (12.5 Marks | 200 Words | India, UNSC, Permanent Seat)
  • (2014) WTO is an important international institution where decisions taken affect countries in a profound manner. What is the mandate of WTO and how binding are their decisions? Critically analyse India’s stand on the latest round of talks on Food security. (12.5 Marks | 200 Words | WTO, Food Security, India's Stand)
  • (2013) The World Bank and the IMF, collectively known as the Bretton Woods Institutions, are the two inter-governmental pillars supporting the structure of the world’s economic and financial order. Superficially, the World Bank and the IMF exhibit many common characteristics, yet their role, functions and mandate are distinctly different. Elucidate. (10 Marks | 200 Words | World Bank, IMF, Bretton Woods Institutions)